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Sandworm: A New Era of Cyberwar and the Hunt for the Kremlin's Most Dangerous Hackers

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A chilling, globe-spanning detective story, tracking an elite group of Russian hackers and the future of global warfare In 2014, the world witnessed the start of an escalating series of cyberattacks. Targeting American utility companies, NATO, and electric grids in Eastern Europe, the strikes became ever more brazen, eventually leading to the first-ever blackouts triggered A chilling, globe-spanning detective story, tracking an elite group of Russian hackers and the future of global warfare In 2014, the world witnessed the start of an escalating series of cyberattacks. Targeting American utility companies, NATO, and electric grids in Eastern Europe, the strikes became ever more brazen, eventually leading to the first-ever blackouts triggered by hackers. They culminated in the summer of 2017 when malware known as NotPetya was unleashed, compromising, disrupting, and paralyzing some of the world's largest companies. At the attack's epicenter in Ukraine, ATMs froze. The railway and postal systems shut down. NotPetya spread around the world, inflicting an unprecedented ten billions of dollars in damage--the largest, most penetrating cyberattack the world had ever seen. The hackers behind these attacks are quickly gaining a reputation as the most dangerous team of cyberwarriors in the internet's history: Sandworm. Believed to be working in the service of Russia's military intelligence agency, they represent a persistent, highly skilled, state-sponsored hacking force, one whose talents are matched by their willingness to launch broad, unrestrained attacks on the most critical infrastructure of their adversaries. They target government and private sector, military and civilians alike. From WIRED senior writer Andy Greenberg comes Sandworm, the true story of the desperate hunt to identify and track those attackers. It considers the danger this force poses to our national stability and security. And as the Kremlin's role in manipulating foreign governments and sparking chaos globally comes into greater focus, Sandworm reveals the realities not just of Russia's global digital offensive, but of an era where warfare ceases to be waged on the battlefield--where the line between digital and physical conflict begins to blur, with world-shaking implications.


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A chilling, globe-spanning detective story, tracking an elite group of Russian hackers and the future of global warfare In 2014, the world witnessed the start of an escalating series of cyberattacks. Targeting American utility companies, NATO, and electric grids in Eastern Europe, the strikes became ever more brazen, eventually leading to the first-ever blackouts triggered A chilling, globe-spanning detective story, tracking an elite group of Russian hackers and the future of global warfare In 2014, the world witnessed the start of an escalating series of cyberattacks. Targeting American utility companies, NATO, and electric grids in Eastern Europe, the strikes became ever more brazen, eventually leading to the first-ever blackouts triggered by hackers. They culminated in the summer of 2017 when malware known as NotPetya was unleashed, compromising, disrupting, and paralyzing some of the world's largest companies. At the attack's epicenter in Ukraine, ATMs froze. The railway and postal systems shut down. NotPetya spread around the world, inflicting an unprecedented ten billions of dollars in damage--the largest, most penetrating cyberattack the world had ever seen. The hackers behind these attacks are quickly gaining a reputation as the most dangerous team of cyberwarriors in the internet's history: Sandworm. Believed to be working in the service of Russia's military intelligence agency, they represent a persistent, highly skilled, state-sponsored hacking force, one whose talents are matched by their willingness to launch broad, unrestrained attacks on the most critical infrastructure of their adversaries. They target government and private sector, military and civilians alike. From WIRED senior writer Andy Greenberg comes Sandworm, the true story of the desperate hunt to identify and track those attackers. It considers the danger this force poses to our national stability and security. And as the Kremlin's role in manipulating foreign governments and sparking chaos globally comes into greater focus, Sandworm reveals the realities not just of Russia's global digital offensive, but of an era where warfare ceases to be waged on the battlefield--where the line between digital and physical conflict begins to blur, with world-shaking implications.

30 review for Sandworm: A New Era of Cyberwar and the Hunt for the Kremlin's Most Dangerous Hackers

  1. 5 out of 5

    Onceinabluemoon

    I got this book for my husband, I had no intentions of reading it, but we were on a road trip and I put on the audio. I love books that expose me to new things that I turn out to be open to, this cyber world was shocking to me, I had no idea that such warfare was underway for such a long protracted time and the devastating consequences involved. There is no question in my mind our elections were interfered with upon after hearing the myriad of experiences in this dark world. To be honest, I I got this book for my husband, I had no intentions of reading it, but we were on a road trip and I put on the audio. I love books that expose me to new things that I turn out to be open to, this cyber world was shocking to me, I had no idea that such warfare was underway for such a long protracted time and the devastating consequences involved. There is no question in my mind our elections were interfered with upon after hearing the myriad of experiences in this dark world. To be honest, I found it terrifying, the harm we choose to inflict upon others is astounding, be it from a gun or cyberspace it’s all equally horrifying. Thought it was excellent and my ostrich head in the sand has been brutally awakened!

  2. 4 out of 5

    Ryan Lackey

    One of the best books about modern infosecurity threats -- a detailed investigation into the activities of GRU in attacking infrastructure around the world (primarily in Ukraine), their motivations, and where the threat is evolving.

  3. 5 out of 5

    Jessica Scott

    If I could give this book more than 5 stars, I would. Absolutely outstanding reporting e,bedded in historical context about Russia’s hacking capabilities, what it’s doing in Ukraine and how it impacts all of us. It should be required reading for all cyber security, military, industry, and government officials. Everyone should read this book.

  4. 5 out of 5

    Kressel Housman

    Too technical for me, but a very important topic. I hope I'll get back to it someday. It seems to me that if they want to reach a non-tech crowd like me, the Dune series discovery angle could be very interesting.

  5. 5 out of 5

    Renee

    Fantastic read. This was like a history of hacking for me, and I was in awe of all the events I had never heard of because the news is so focused on the president’s latest tweets. I feel I have a foundational understanding finally of the politics of Ukraine and Russia and the major codenames for hackers and malware. It is written well and keeps your attention. I started taking notes halfway through because I know I will come back to them as this landscape develops. This is another book I really Fantastic read. This was like a history of hacking for me, and I was in awe of all the events I had never heard of because the news is so focused on the president’s latest tweets. I feel I have a foundational understanding finally of the politics of Ukraine and Russia and the major codenames for hackers and malware. It is written well and keeps your attention. I started taking notes halfway through because I know I will come back to them as this landscape develops. This is another book I really think should be required reading!

  6. 4 out of 5

    Val

    This book was much more, and much better, than I expected, and I had high hopes when I started it. It tells the story of the elite Russian cyber attack team “Sandworm” as a central feature, but the book focuses even more on the first part of the title, “A New Era of Cyberwar,” giving a detailed but not overly-technical account of Cyberwar and the most devastating attacks made since network connected computing began. I have some training and experience in this field but I learned new things about This book was much more, and much better, than I expected, and I had high hopes when I started it. It tells the story of the elite Russian cyber attack team “Sandworm” as a central feature, but the book focuses even more on the first part of the title, “A New Era of Cyberwar,” giving a detailed but not overly-technical account of Cyberwar and the most devastating attacks made since network connected computing began. I have some training and experience in this field but I learned new things about old attacks, and new things about more recent attacks. Once the genie was out of the bottle (destroying centrifuges in Iran’s Natanz nuclear plant through computer code commands), it was only a matter of time before other experts around the world learned how to reverse-engineer the breakthrough and spread the know-how far and wide. Once such tools were used on another nation and observable in the wild, cyberwar was ready to cause physical world mayhem in other machines on other continents. To-date, this is the best book I’ve read about cyberwar and the nations that wage it, with Russia being front-and-center as the most aggressive, damaging, and dangerous. Its teams have sledgehammered pillars of the international economy, such as power grids, transportation systems, and shipping yards, leaving government and corporate officials around the world scrambling to rebuild entire computer infrastructures or go bankrupt. Such teams crashed the Korea Olympics, caused chaos on the systems cleaning up the Chernobyl accident site, shut off the power for millions of people in Ukraine, and of course, caused the American people to lose confidence in our national election voter information and ballot systems. The author uses some stunning examples or real-world effects to make the point that cyber attacks have very real physical world consequences. The attack on the shipping giant Maersk, with its ubiquitous containers and cranes in nearly every major port on the planet, will give any reader a jolt of reality as to the economic crises a few lines of code can ignite. This was a terrific read from start to finish, and I highly recommend it to anyone interested in learning more about the havoc state-sponsored hacker teams can wreak on the digital and physical worlds we operate in daily. To call them “hackers” is a misnomer from a past we no longer live in. The sophisticated cyber attacks such teams have carried out are not merely a bunch of hackers testing to see what they can penetrate, testing the limits of their skills or the security of their targets. Teams such as “Sandworm” are the cyber version of military Special Forces teams like SEALS or Green Berets. They never stop training, they are relentless, and they can be lethal when the mission requires it. This book will be eye-opening for those who still believe the USA is better-protected or more immune from crippling cyber attacks than the unfortunate nations teams like Sandworm have targeted repeatedly. America has always had an isolationist streak, believing itself safe from enemies because it is protected east and west by large oceans so we see our enemies coming to attack our homeland. However, in the cyber world, no such isolation or protection exists. One quote stood out to me, that perfectly states the threat we face with nearly everything we do taking place on the Internet in some way: “Every barbarian is already at every gate.” In warfare, the goal is to win, and some governments are willing to be more ruthless and provocative than others, clearly viewIng dominance in the cyber domain as a critical part of winning future wars. With the tools and proven ability to knock out power grids, crash trade and financial systems, take company servers hostage, and make physical machines stop working or break down or work too well for safety, there is almost no limit to what major nation-states can do to each other in an actual all-out war, and civilians who rely on electricity and water and computers to live normal ife will be the collateral damage. Just ask the Ukrainian cyber expert who could not use his credit card, his ATM card, buy groceries, heat his house, pay his bills online, or do anything we all take for granted, because entire regions of that country have been repeatedly hit by cyber warfare attacks from Russia. Russia’s actions in Crimea here preceded by cyber attacks that shut down pro-Ukraine government communications, websites, and established a misinformation campaign. Ukraine experts paint a bleak future picture for us all if an all-out cyberwar erupts with Russia at some point. Some attacks are meant to show capability, as a deterrent to similar attacks on oneself, but the pace and severity of cyberwar attacks are rising, as are the chances for retaliatory strikes and escalation from capable victims. If you can shut down shipping container cargo manifests and cripple loading cranes, you can keep your enemy from receiving food, tools, parts, supplies, the very lifeblood of a nation’s ability to wage war. If it cannot feed its population, or maintain its machines, or communicate with the populace, war morale plummets. Do it in winter when losing the power grid means also losing heating systems for homes and businesses, so pipes, and people, freeze. When we start to think about how many networked devices we have running things in our homes, we can move forward to imagining what happens when those devices stop working. SmartHomes are amazing, and are an open invitation for cyberwar to be the “barbarian already at every gate.” A fascinating 5-star book that is enlightening, entertaining, frightening, and unquestionably necessary for waking us all up to what lies ahead. You will never think of a “glitch” on your favorite devices the same again.

  7. 5 out of 5

    Bouke

    Just listen to the Darknet diaries podcast episode NotPetya, it's better than the book.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Filip Olšovský

    Although the beginning is often unreasonably epic and the ending is just 20-30 pages too long, all the stuff in between is just brilliant. Probably the best book on this topic and a clear example of how reporting should look like.

  9. 4 out of 5

    Csimplot Simplot

    Excellent book!!!

  10. 4 out of 5

    Jonathan

    Sandworm tells the story of the Kremlin hackers behind the worst computer crimes ever, from the *NotPetya* worm (which took many different corporations offline, including Maersk and many US hospitals) to the South Korean Olympics to our own 2016 elections. Greenberg traces it all back to *Sandworm*, one of the original worms. Ukraine is used as a test bed for Russian cyber aggression and the lessons we should learn (although I don't think we have) if (when?) they attack us. It is pretty crazy how Sandworm tells the story of the Kremlin hackers behind the worst computer crimes ever, from the *NotPetya* worm (which took many different corporations offline, including Maersk and many US hospitals) to the South Korean Olympics to our own 2016 elections. Greenberg traces it all back to *Sandworm*, one of the original worms. Ukraine is used as a test bed for Russian cyber aggression and the lessons we should learn (although I don't think we have) if (when?) they attack us. It is pretty crazy how "head in the sand" we are about these attacks. I think the thing that stuck most with me was the idea of "distance". While people in power say "Oh, Ukraine is so far away we don't have to put our foot down", in reality, when it comes to the Internet, we are all neighbors and there is no "distance" that protects us like the Atlantic and Pacific have protected us in the past. As a software developer, the stories told here have a real chilling effect. No matter how small or obscure your software might be, it can be used as a vector for real destruction. The developers of a small accounting software package in Ukraine might say that, while they were of course worried about security, why would anyone target us? Turns out, they were a perfect vector for the disastrous worldwide epidemic of "NotPetya" - once you are in a networked computer with complete control, you can quickly spread throughout the interconnected world. But in some ways this book reminded me of "Blowout" - a description of a litany of failures and of a lack of imagination that I feel powerless to do anything about and that the book itself is merely a catalog of failures and won't lead to any kind of change. But this one is worse. It makes me think about bunkers and ways to survive an apocalyptic loss of electricity, the lifeblood of modern society. There should be limits put on what kinds of attacks are "okay", but no - we think we are better than the "others", so we don't want to limit our attacks. Ugh. Good luck with that.

  11. 4 out of 5

    Mark Maddrey

    It is a rare feat to write a non-fiction book that manages to be both factually informative and absolutely compelling to read. This book is one that does. It could not be more timely or important given the current need to mis-direct attention with spurious charges of meddling BY Ukrainian actors when the truth is ENTIRELY the opposite. They have been and will continue to be the targets of Russian interference. And, of course, so are we. I love the way Mr. Greenberg includes enough of the It is a rare feat to write a non-fiction book that manages to be both factually informative and absolutely compelling to read. This book is one that does. It could not be more timely or important given the current need to mis-direct attention with spurious charges of meddling BY Ukrainian actors when the truth is ENTIRELY the opposite. They have been and will continue to be the targets of Russian interference. And, of course, so are we. I love the way Mr. Greenberg includes enough of the technical hacking information to feed my interest but never lets it bog down the flow of the story. He connects the dots starting with dot 1 and running through to dot 256 (or wherever we are now). It is exactly the kind of reporting that used to be undeniable before 2016 when nearly half of the country decided to be delusional and only believe what they wanted. This book does scare me but I know that we have intelligent people, one might call them "elites", working to protect our important systems and I hope they can continue to do their work without interference from idiotic despots.

  12. 4 out of 5

    Jane Cordingley

    Facinating, and what a time to read it - right as they are talking that a response from Iran might be cyber. Recommend for anyone interested in what future reactions to attacks on a government might entail - or even internal hacker attacks.

  13. 4 out of 5

    Wayne

    Well researched, well written look into some of the most high profile cyber attacks in the last 10 years. Most of these attacks have an underlying thread connecting them. Russia. They've been honing their cyberwar tactics in their wars with Georgia, Estonia, and Ukraine. Their attacks have been getting more brazen and reckless since the international community seems unwilling to draw a red line and hold Russia to account, even after NotPetya caused more than $10 billion dollars in damage to Well researched, well written look into some of the most high profile cyber attacks in the last 10 years. Most of these attacks have an underlying thread connecting them. Russia. They've been honing their cyberwar tactics in their wars with Georgia, Estonia, and Ukraine. Their attacks have been getting more brazen and reckless since the international community seems unwilling to draw a red line and hold Russia to account, even after NotPetya caused more than $10 billion dollars in damage to companies around the world. I've read most of the existing books on cyberwar and this is a must read. Greenberg (WIRED Security writer) writes in a way that you don't have to be a computer expert to understand. Highly recommend.

  14. 4 out of 5

    Thor Nordahl

    Very good book, although I got a little sick of the narrative structure. Also I'm either going off the grid or installing ultra-secure custom made software on all my devices after reading this..

  15. 5 out of 5

    James Davis

    A Real Existential Threat A well researched book on cyber-warfare that reads like a fast paced spy thriller. I only wish it was fiction! Great reporting on an important topic.

  16. 4 out of 5

    Neil McGee

    Very good, well researched. Really enjoyed.

  17. 4 out of 5

    Roxanne

    Excellent book on a very important subject.

  18. 4 out of 5

    Collin Lysford

    It's a common statement in cybersecurity that you can almost never really attribute a given attack to a given actor. But Sandworm does its best to assemble the massive preponderance of what evidence we do have of who's behind some of the highest profile attacks of the decade. When you combine that with concrete evidence that cyberwar can hop effortlessly into the realm of the real, this is an extremely timely guide into what everyone really needs to know about the new age of digital threat It's a common statement in cybersecurity that you can almost never really attribute a given attack to a given actor. But Sandworm does its best to assemble the massive preponderance of what evidence we do have of who's behind some of the highest profile attacks of the decade. When you combine that with concrete evidence that cyberwar can hop effortlessly into the realm of the real, this is an extremely timely guide into what everyone really needs to know about the new age of digital threat that's upon us. I've been waiting for this book ever since the Wired article last year that included some preview material, and it didn't disappoint. However, I think it tries a little too hard for it's own good to be punchy and mix things up frequently. The chapters are all super short, and when everything is connected in such fundamental ways, I can't help but feel sometimes this is making it harder than it needs to be to keep the big picture in your head all at once. This is definitely one of the books that I think could have stood to focus less on the gonzo/personal aspects and lean more into scholarly rigor. Still, it's not a huge detraction, and this is definitely a 4 star on the cusp of 5. I think pretty much everyone should read this book and know the kind of things the future has in store for us.

  19. 5 out of 5

    Dоcтоr

    Superb!

  20. 5 out of 5

    Michael Perkins

    if you don't have time to read the entire book, here are some of the salient incidents. (Hint: Russia is not our friend) https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2019... excerpt from the book.... https://www.wired.com/story/untold-st...

  21. 4 out of 5

    Holly Dolezalek

    This is excellent. It's a good story, a clear explanation, and an urgent call to action, all without ever dragging or getting muddled.

  22. 4 out of 5

    Joheiv

    This book is totally fantastic.

  23. 4 out of 5

    Antwerpenr

    Fantastic - required reading.

  24. 5 out of 5

    mjelle

    Loved it! I have a love of the tech world and hacking is at the top of my interests. It's so fascinating what you can do with a computer and how much of an impact you can make with it. This includes hacking. The book reads like a thriller and it kept me engaged to the point where I couldn't put it down. One thing I pulled from it though is DON'T USE WINDOWS! Seriously though, Windows OS is junk and it's the core reason hackers penetrated literally everything. Macs aren't immune but it's a hell Loved it! I have a love of the tech world and hacking is at the top of my interests. It's so fascinating what you can do with a computer and how much of an impact you can make with it. This includes hacking. The book reads like a thriller and it kept me engaged to the point where I couldn't put it down. One thing I pulled from it though is DON'T USE WINDOWS! Seriously though, Windows OS is junk and it's the core reason hackers penetrated literally everything. Macs aren't immune but it's a hell of a lot better than using a Windows PC.

  25. 5 out of 5

    Goldman

    I think the entire internet ought to be destroyed and rebuild. Same goes for all secret intelligence agencies worldwide, and all political structures. It is clear none of it works and that combined they pose an imminent threat to the survival of the human race: environmentally, socially, and psychologically. The problems are too deep-rooted to be 'patched', this is becoming abundantly more clear as the future is closing in faster and faster on the oblivious present.

  26. 4 out of 5

    Reed Galen

    Everyone should read this book.

  27. 4 out of 5

    Will Crocker

    Fascinating view on the present and future of Warfare Incredibly well written and enjoyable read. The scope of what Andy uncovers in Sandworm is both thrilling and terrifying. I'll definitely think about this during the next NYC blackout. Best read of the year for me by far.

  28. 4 out of 5

    Bill Leach

    Sandworm is the name that has been given to a group that specializes in hacking industrial control systems. They appear to operate out of Russia, and are likely associated with the Russian government. Greenberg reviews the early events that appear to be associated with this group. In 1998, Moonlight Maze hackers, working through the Moscow internet provider Cityline, stole an enormous volume of data from the U.S. government and military, the consequences of which are unclear. Estonia and Georgia Sandworm is the name that has been given to a group that specializes in hacking industrial control systems. They appear to operate out of Russia, and are likely associated with the Russian government. Greenberg reviews the early events that appear to be associated with this group. In 1998, Moonlight Maze hackers, working through the Moscow internet provider Cityline, stole an enormous volume of data from the U.S. government and military, the consequences of which are unclear. Estonia and Georgia were hit with Denial-of-Service (DOS) attacks in 2007 and 2008 respectively. While the source of the Estonia attack was not identified, the Georgia attack coincided with a Russian invasion Meanwhile, the U.S. started work in this area. In 2007 the Aurora project demonstrated that the infection of a protective relay allowed a 2 MW generator to be connected to the power grid before it synchronized, causing torque impacts sufficient to destroy the machine. The U.S. NSA designed the Stuxnet worm to infiltrate Iran uranium enrichment centrifuges and destroy them. Although many machines were destroyed in 2010, Iran actually increased it's enriched uranium output through the year. Stuxnet propagated further than expected, inflecting machines in more than one hundred countries Non-infrastructure attacks seemed to be carried out by a different group. In 2016, Fancy Bear and Cozy Bear hacked the Democratic National Committee's servers, leaking damaging documents, which the author characterizes as having "... successfully thrown the core of American democracy into chaos." and to which he attributes Trump winning the election. In 2016, Industroyer, later renamed Crash Override, was used to attack the Ukrainian high voltage power grid, taking it out for some hours. Also in 2016, the group ShadowBrokers stole a number of NSA hacking tools including EternalBlue, an NSA hack using an SMB vulnerability. The ransomware WannaCry used EternalBlue to spread, but luckily it had a kill switch which limited it damage. Another exploit, Mimikatz, was built by a hacker to demonstrate a vulnerability in Microsoft's WDigest which stores authentication information. Although notified of the weakness, MicroSoft did nothing about it. The worm NotPetya incorporated this vulnerability, allowing it to gain access to entire networks. In Jun 2017, NotPetya attacked much of the infrastructure of the Ukraine, the shipping company Maersk, the pharmacutical company Merek and others, causing over a billion dollars of damage. Further events made the source of the hacking less certain. In 2017, Bad Rabbit hit a number of computers in Russia, adding confusion to the idea that the Russian government was the source of these worms. In 2018, Olympic Destroyer hit the Winter Olympic Games in South Korea - code snippets were similar to a variety of earlier worms. Greenberg spends much time on trying to determine who the actual hackers are. However, much of the evidence comes down to correlations in the coding of the various worms. In 2018, the U.S. Department of Justice released an indictment of 12 GRU hackers for their role in interfering with the 2016 U.S. election. Similarly, the U.K. National Cyber Security Centre released a report confirming the GRU's connection to Sandworm. However, without the evidence it is hard to know whether these statements are substantiated or are political positioning. In talking to past senior U.S. officials, Greenberg finds that the U.S. is unwilling to move toward a ban on cyber attacks on infrastructure as they would like to have this capability available for their own use. Indications are that there are now 10 countries working on cyber offence capabilities against infrastructure. The author looks at the possibility of increasing resilience by having manual backup systems Quite a good book, although a bit confusing as the various events are not presented in chronological order.

  29. 5 out of 5

    Daniel

    There was a time when cybersecurity meant data exfiltration. High-profile consumer data breaches blitzed the news, NSA chiefs spoke about ``greatest transfer of wealth in history'' via lost intellectual property, and even the US government was shown to be vulnerable whenit lost the records of 21.5 million Federal government employees and contractors. Declaring this era to be over would be premature given the DNC breach and especially the Shadow Brokers leaks. Nevertheless, cybersecurity means a There was a time when cybersecurity meant data exfiltration. High-profile consumer data breaches blitzed the news, NSA chiefs spoke about ``greatest transfer of wealth in history'' via lost intellectual property, and even the US government was shown to be vulnerable whenit lost the records of 21.5 million Federal government employees and contractors. Declaring this era to be over would be premature given the DNC breach and especially the Shadow Brokers leaks. Nevertheless, cybersecurity means a lot more than data exfiltration. Greenberg was possibly too accurate in portraying his investigation; the book meanders early on, and then makes up for it in the closing chapters. It slowly uncovers a series of attacks compromising the availability of computer systems, rather than the personal data contained within. He links mythical group ``Sandworm'' to attacks on industrial control systems in the Ukraine, NotPetya that rattled around the globe, and then the attack on the Korean olympics. At times the the mysticism around Sandworm became silly. If this was a Disney film, Sandworm would turn out to be a misunderstood monster isolated from society that some naive child befriended (*). Greenberg is pretty honest about this. There's a really nice chapter meditating on whether Sandworm, Fancy Bear etc were different actors, whether there one actor specialised in initial compromise and then turned operations over to a different agency (e.g the FSB or GRU), whether it was all in fact the GRU (coincidentally the main character in a kid's film with the (*) dynamic). Then he takes all this tension and ambiguity, and concludes it was all the GRU because the British state said it was. This sums up threat intelligence from my perspective--a load of clever engineers link indicators of compromise but cannot link these to real world actors, relying on opaque intelligence agencies to do so. The closing chapter tied together the issues with "solutions" like norms or resilience. The US/UK are conflicted on norms because they have so much to gain from offensive cyber. The stuff bringing in a sage-like Dan Geer was great.

  30. 5 out of 5

    Federico

    This is a terrifying, well documented book about recent global cyber attacks, about the rogue nations that foster them, and about western governments that blithely do little to consider, and act upon the menace and importance of cyberwar. The book is not an easy read for non-nerds, such as I am. I had to slug through the first chapters, to familiarize myself with the vocabulary, terms and names of cyberwarfare, and, as well, with the author's style. Don't get me wrong : Greenberg's style is This is a terrifying, well documented book about recent global cyber attacks, about the rogue nations that foster them, and about western governments that blithely do little to consider, and act upon the menace and importance of cyberwar. The book is not an easy read for non-nerds, such as I am. I had to slug through the first chapters, to familiarize myself with the vocabulary, terms and names of cyberwarfare, and, as well, with the author's style. Don't get me wrong : Greenberg's style is excellent, but I had issues with its pacing or rythm (See Example at the end of this comment on the book). That's just me. I needed a while before I could "go with flow" of the book. What it says is of utmost importance. It informs fully on how dangerous and wickedly efficient the Internet can be at taking down national and even international grids (electricity; banking, air traffic, etc.). About one third through the book, I could follow easily, and be suitably horrified by the descriptions Greenberg gives us. Prepare to be justifyably scared! Don't miss this important book! Example (see above) : "That specimen of rarefied malware had proved the promise of digital dark arts to achieve the impossible in U.S. intelligence and military operations, as well as the peril posed by America’s adversaries, like Sandworm, should they employ those same weapons."

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